ホーム > uncategorized > Andrew Carnegie’s decision to support library construction developed through his very own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years in your coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed through the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but been required to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization within the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father beyond business. For that reason, family members sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
2014-11-19Andrew Carnegie’s decision to support library construction developed through his very own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years in your coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed through the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.my response Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but been required to stop after only 3 years. The rapid industrialization within the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father beyond business. For that reason, family members sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to go to work, his learning did not end. After the year with a textile factory, he became a messenger boy to the local telegraph company. Many of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library for any young worker who wished to borrow a novel. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows in which the light of knowledge streamed. In 1853, after the colonel’s representatives made an effort to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter with the editor for the Pittsburgh Dispatch defending the best of all the working boys to take pleasure from the pleasures of your library. More valuable, he resolved that, should he be wealthy, he would make similar opportunities open to other poor workers.
Within the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune which would enable him to meet that pledge. Throughout his years as being a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the skill of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts using the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he attended work at age 18. Throughout his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent for the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in several other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to manage the Keystone Bridge Company, which had been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. Via the 1870s he was concentrating on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.
Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Even before selling Carnegie Steel he had begun to consider how to handle his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, wherein he stated that wealthy men should live without extravagance, provide moderately for dependents, and distribute most of their riches to benefit the welfare and happiness within the common man–aided by the consideration to assist just those would you help themselves. The Most Beneficial Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to feature gifts that promoted scientific research, the normal spread of knowledge, together with the promotion of world peace. Most of these organizations always this very day: the Carnegie Corporation in New York, for instance, helps support Sesame Street.
Because of his background, Carnegie was particularly serious about public libraries. At some point he stated a library was the perfect gift for your community, simply because it gave people the opportunity to improve themselves. His confidence was depending upon the outcomes of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, for instance, a library offered by Enoch Pratt were definitely used by 37,000 people in one year. Carnegie believed that the relatively few public library patrons were of more value to their community rrn comparison to the masses who chose never to take advantage of the library.
Carnegie divided his donations to libraries on the retail and wholesale periods. During the retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the states. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities for instance private pools and even libraries. In your years after 1896, referred to as the wholesale period, Carnegie will no longer supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities which had limited entry to cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were for under $10,000. Although almost all of the towns receiving gifts were while in the Midwest, altogether 46 states taken advantage of Carnegie’s plan.
Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction carrying out a report produced to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 of this existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report determined that to generally be really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings have been provided, the good news is it was time to staff all of them experts who would stimulate active, efficient libraries throughout their communities. Libraries already promised continued as being built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was turned to library education.
When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes through which he believed. His gifts to several charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as a means to better people’s lives, and libraries provided undoubtedly one of his main tools to assist you to Americans set up a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both as he was young, and later in life? 2. How much formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his interest in books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people should do because of their money? Why did he consider that? Do you ever agree? 4. How did supporting libraries fit with Carnegie’s past and his awesome beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, In the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).